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Active Teaching and Learning Methodologies in Higher Education

In addition, the knowledge gained did not alleviate the problems associated with experiencing cultural shock. The key here is time, so the information is offered in a concentrated form. In these benefits are usually presented recipes for behavior in the most common situations, i. A similar goal is pursued and instructing, acquainting a person with problems that may arise in a particular country.

It is training that makes empirical learning possible to interact with representatives of foreign cultures. In this case, the training sets two main tasks.

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- Автор milaya..у Данте была рыбка ну, а у меня уже целый косяк цель -знакомство будущей счастливой пары, даже если они не выходят. Став "ЗНАКОМСТВО ПО ВОЛЕ ВЫСШИХ"(автор milaya)у Данте была рыбка ну, а у меня уже целый косяк цель -знакомство будущей счастливой.

Firstly, by playing different situations that take place differently in different cultures, familiarize trainees with intercultural differences; secondly, acquainting the trainees with the most characteristic features of the foreign culture, to carry out training for transferring the knowledge gained to other situations. Recently, trainings have become the main way of preparing a person for intercultural interaction. The basis of preparation is usually general cultural training, or self-awareness training, as a result of which a person should become aware of himself as a representative of a particular culture, bring norms, values and rules of behavior in their culture to a level of consciousness.

After that, it becomes possible to show and analyze differences between different cultures, and then to develop the ability to notice these differences and use them for effective intercultural interaction. To do this, the trainer invites participants to consider various conflict situations that are solved from the perspective of different cultures and fix attention to the stereotypes and norms of the native culture.

Their task is to prepare a person for interaction with representatives of a particular culture. When developing programs for such trainings, great care should be taken, since national stereotypes are too likely to spread, emphasize differences, ignore similarities and, consequently, ignore almost all the goals of developing intercultural competence[13].

Many people tend to stereotype certain characteristics and then attribute them to representatives of the whole culture. It is necessary to understand that some of the models of relations we have identified with representatives of another culture are only relations between us and these specific people at a certain time, and not the characteristics of all the representatives of a given foreign culture.

How can this be avoided? The approach within the framework of the theory of cultural scenarios avoids stereotyping. It assumes that in some countries or regions of these countries or in certain groups of people in these countries specific forms of action can be observed with a high probability, for example, how you greet each other, what gestures are prohibited or what gifts they bring with them when they visit.

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Such scenarios can be observed and studied without resorting to ideas of a national character, completely regardless of what can be called a whole series of cultural scenarios that are common in some regions of Russia and are only slightly present in others. Identifying and disseminating more accurate data on the distribution of specific cultural scenarios in individual countries and regions and individual social, ethnic, and confessional groups in these countries is quite interesting and requires a lot of time and attention from those involved in the issue of intercultural training in specific countries.

People in a certain situation expect a specific behavior, and not waiting for it, make false conclusions about the person with whom they communicate. In the course of the attributive training, a person gets acquainted with the attributions characteristic of the culture of interest. Case - studies in the intercultural education.

"FLUIDS OF LOVE" . Ragnar Lodbrok

This method has long been known in psychology, is one of the earliest. The use of this method began in She is fluent in German. She has acquaintances among university staff. One of such acquaintances, Veronika, in a telephone conversation, agrees with Tatyana about inviting her to dinner at her home, tells what dishes she would like to prepare and suggests a date for a meeting in December of this year.

As this small example shows, case - studies in the context of intercultural learning are mostly narrowly defined events in time and space in which two or more people from at least two different countries participate or belong to at least two different cultural communities.

These can be problematic, conflicting or, on the contrary, joyful events. Intercultural learning using the case method requires carefully designed learning materials that should be available to all participants.

They are based on the actual experience of people working in relevant intercultural contexts. Documents include scenarios and contexts, that is, events that are considered in this method should be embedded in a script that briefly describes, for example, time, place, social roles, relationships, and interests. The core of the method is a detailed and accurate description of cases. They should relate to events that really happened. They should contain typical and frequently repeated situations. And they should strive for objectivity, that is, for the most accurate reconstruction of the event.

The authors of case descriptions can use templates that are offered in the special literature. Training documents also include questions, problems or tasks that require the development of hypotheses in the case. In most cases, such cases or events have a history. This story can be based on the biographical experience of the people involved or on their previous relationships.

It can be based on differences or similarities in the political and ideological beliefs of the individuals involved. But it can also be based on the historical relations of countries whose representatives are actors in a given situation. Since the events mentioned in the description of a case often also have a subsequent history, which relates, in particular, to the application of accumulated experience, it makes sense to refer to it as well. Careful familiarity with the case description. Participants read the scenario and case description separately and make notes on possible interpretations or hypotheses.

Hypothesis and interpretation: Participants first formulate, individually or in small groups, hypotheses about the perception, interests, and intentions of the persons participating in this event, as well as about the origin and course of the event itself. Testing and discussing hypotheses: In plenary sessions, individuals or small groups then present their hypotheses with explanations and rationales, answer questions and discuss them.

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Assessment of the hypothesis and preliminary assessment: At this stage, participants are trying to determine which hypotheses are most likely to be applied and which are the least likely. Different variants of the case method mainly follow this sequence but differ, on the one hand, in the type and scope of the case description and the construction of the individual phases, on the other hand. This is the first version of the case analysis method.

All participants in the training describe such an event in writing, and the trainer gives specific clues to describe, for example, using a form or checklist. It is important that the participants of the training in the description refrain from interpretation and value judgments about other persons participating in this event and strive for a simple description. These descriptions are then submitted by the moderator, the authors are not named. However, during the analysis, the authors can declare themselves if they so wish, and if necessary add additional information about the event.

At the next stage, other members of the group develop possible interpretations - as hypotheses, and arguments supporting the hypothesis.


Further hypotheses and argumentation are discussed. Then there is an attempt to rank the hypotheses and argumentation, in the sequence in which the hypotheses are most likely to interpret the event. A variant of case - studies is known in the literature on intercultural learning under the name of the cultural assimilator.

The purpose of this method is to teach a person to see situations from the point of view of members of an alien group, to understand their vision of the world. The cultural assimilator is also called the technique of increasing intercultural sensitization Intercultural sensitizer [8, p. This method is the most well studied today, but its application in practice requires a high degree of self-discipline and motivation. On the one hand, students do not need to formulate hypotheses to interpret the situation; they are given to them by the author of a case study and constitute causal attributions about the observed behavior.

Hypotheses are provided either printed on paper or electronically. In general, these are four possible interpretations, of which participants must choose, discussing with partners or small groups, an interpretation that seems most likely to them. Interpretations chosen by small groups will be presented and substantiated at plenary sessions.

In the 80s. Brislin and K. They formulated the concept of a common cultural assimilator to help people in a foreign culture [9, p.

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The second major difference is that after presenting their decisions in plenary sessions, small groups receive feedback. This feedback lies in the fact that they are given an interpretation of the fact that the author of the case study, who also represents an expert in an intercultural context, considers the most likely, and provides detailed reasons why one alternative is more likely than others.

So, cultural assimilators are programmed manuals with feedback. Michael is an American businessperson who works for a multinational company in Spain.

He told his Spanish colleagues that he would like to see a bullfight. Therefore, they invited him to accompany them on the first bullfight of the season. I bet on this bull. You must select one of the following response options:. Colleagues Michael thought that he wanted to bet on the outcome of the battle.

Michael perceived this event as a sport; Spaniards are more likely to see a ritual in a bullfight.

It is considered very unfortunate for the matador when someone publicly declares that the bull will win. Not quite right. Therefore, the Spaniards do not consider bets relevant to the bullfight. This is the right answer. For true fans, bullfighting is a ritual, not a sport. Bullfighting is a sacrificial ritual, "authentic religious drama," according to G. Its history has its roots deep in Greek-Latin culture, which has experienced the process of romanization. In this ritual, this drama — form, skill, and intensity of execution are considered more important than the result.

If the ritual is performed correctly, the death of the bull is inevitable, but he should show his dignity in the last act. Modern secular societies liberated their culture from many such rituals, which at one time were significant, or modified them to such an extent that they have largely lost their meaning. Representatives of such societies often perceive rituals as bizarre, as amusing superstitions, a spectacle, or a sport. Not accepting them seriously leads to an insult, so guests should show understanding towards their owners and respect for their traditions.

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There is a more accurate answer. Although many matadors are superstitious, there is no indication in history that such comments are considered prophetic and bring failure. There is a more accurate explanation. Composing their own cultural assimilators can be offered to students as a home creative work. In turn, further work with these assimilators can become a form of classroom work, followed by a discussion of its results. In intercultural learning, two basic principles need to be considered: contextuality and complexity.

The contextual principle should indicate three facts. First, such educational activities should primarily develop an understanding of the role of cultural contexts in their own and alien human behavior, in human communication and, therefore, in intercultural interaction. Secondly, the cultural contexts of those involved in intercultural interaction require a differentiated analysis in order to counteract the formation of stereotypes.